Mansel Fletcher 17 June If it is not possible to match the trouser leg, socks may match one's shoes. In lieu of over-the-calf length which will stay up by itself , some men still use garters to hold up their socks, but this is unusual. Many of our designs are made with Millennium fabric, an innovative textile that moves with the body for maximum comfort and stretch. Artists and bands such as Nick Cave , Marilyn Manson , Blutengel and Akercocke are known for the use of formal clothing in music videos and stage performances.
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This attracted the attention of the public, and various photographers produced records of the women's unconventional manner of dress through the mid- to late 19th century. Another woman who advocated publicly for dress reform was Mary Edwards Walker , the abolitionist and Civil War surgeon. Walker, who had worn bloomers while working at a military hospital, wrote in that women's dress should "protect the person, and allow freedom of motion and circulation, and not make the wearer a slave to it" .
Walker openly wore men's trousers, and was arrested several times for wearing male attire her earliest arrest was , in New York, and her final arrest was in , in Chicago, at the age of 80 . An updated version of the bloomer, for athletic use, was introduced in the s as women's bicycling came into fashion. As activities such as tennis, cycling, and horseback riding became more popular at the turn of the century, women turned to pants or knickerbockers to provide comfort and freedom of movement in these activities, and some laws made allowances for women's wearing of pants during these activities .
Women increasingly wore trousers as leisurewear in the s and 30s, and working women, including female pilots, often wore trousers [ citation needed ]. Arrests for cross-dressing did not necessarily cease during this time. For instance, in , labor leader Luisa Capetillo became the first woman in Puerto Rico to wear trousers in public. Capetillo was sent to jail for what was then considered to be a crime in Puerto Rico, although the judge later dropped the charges against her.
Actresses Marlene Dietrich and Katharine Hepburn were often photographed in trousers in the s; Dietrich famously appearing in a black tuxedo and matching fedora at the premiere of The Sign of the Cross . Eleanor Roosevelt became the first First Lady to appear in pants at a formal function, presiding over the Easter Egg Roll in wearing riding pants, a consequence of not having time to change after an early morning ride.
However, she seemed to embrace the unconventional circumstance, posing for a photo in the pants on the South Portico of the White House . Vogue featured its first spread of women wearing slacks in During World War II , women working in industrial work in war service wore their husbands' suitably altered trousers, and in the post-war era trousers were still common casual wear for gardening, socialising, and other leisure pursuits [ citation needed ].
Similarly, in Britain during the Second World War , because of the rationing of clothing, many women took to wearing their husbands' civilian clothes to work while their husbands were away in the armed forces. This was partly because they were seen as work garments, and partly to allow women to keep their clothing allowance for other uses.
As the men's clothes wore out, replacements were needed, so that by the summer of it was reported that sales of women's trousers were five times more than in the previous year. In , the Government Code Section In the s, André Courrèges introduced jeans for women, leading to the era of designer jeans. Also in , Barbra Streisand became the first woman to attend the Oscars in pants, accepting an award for her role in Funny Girl dressed in an outfit designed by Arnold Scaasi .
In , the Education Amendments of passed in the United States, which, as part of the Title IX non-discrimination provisions, declared that dresses could not be required of girls. Dress codes thus changed in public schools across the United States. In the s, trousers became quite fashionable for women. In California state senator Rebecca Morgan became the first woman to wear trousers in a U. Hillary Clinton was the first woman to wear trousers in an official U.
Women were not allowed to wear trousers on the U. Senate floor until In , Malawi women became legally allowed to wear trousers under President Kamuzu Banda 's rule.
Since the International Skating Union has allowed women to wear trousers instead of skirts in competition if they wish. In , a bylaw requiring women in Paris, France to ask permission from city authorities before "dressing as men", including wearing trousers with exceptions for those "holding a bicycle handlebar or the reins of a horse" was declared officially revoked by France's Women's Rights Minister, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem.
Also in , Turkey's parliament ended a ban on women lawmakers wearing trousers in its assembly. In , an Indian family court in Mumbai ruled that a husband objecting to his wife wearing a kurta and jeans and forcing her to wear a sari amounts to cruelty inflicted by the husband and can be a grounds for divorce.
In the Royal Canadian Mounted Police began to allow women to wear trousers and boots with all their formal uniforms. In , The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints announced that its female employees could wear "professional pantsuits and dress slacks" while at work; dresses and skirts had previously been required. Most UK schools allow female pupils to wear trousers, but many girls still wear skirts in primary and secondary schools, even where the choice of trousers is given.
In the late 20th and early 21st century, many schools began changing their uniform rules to allow trousers for girls amidst opposition to skirts-only policies - the most publicised possibly being Jo Hale vs Whickam Comprehensive in The rule is still enforced in many schools, particularly independent and selective state schools.
In fact, government guidelines expressly state the decision of allowing girls to wear trousers is with individual schools. Lapels also have a buttonhole , intended to hold a boutonnière , a decorative flower.
These are now only commonly seen at more formal events. Usually double-breasted suits have one hole on each lapel with a flower just on the left , while single-breasted suits have just one on the left. Most jackets have a variety of inner pockets, and two main outer pockets, which are generally either patch pockets, flap pockets, or jetted "besom" pockets. The flap pocket is standard for side pockets, and has an extra lined flap of matching fabric covering the top of the pocket.
A jetted pocket is most formal, with a small strip of fabric taping the top and bottom of the slit for the pocket. This style is most often on seen on formalwear , such as a dinner jacket. A breast pocket is usually found at the left side, where a pocket square or handkerchief can be displayed. In addition to the standard two outer pockets and breast pocket, some suits have a fourth, the ticket pocket, usually located just above the right pocket and roughly half as wide.
While this was originally exclusively a feature of country suits, used for conveniently storing a train ticket, it is now seen on some town suits. Another country feature also worn sometimes in cities is a pair of hacking pockets, which are similar to normal ones, but slanted; this was originally designed to make the pockets easier to open on horseback while hacking.
Suit jackets in all styles typically have three or four buttons on each cuff, which are often purely decorative the sleeve is usually sewn closed and cannot be unbuttoned to open. Five buttons are unusual and are a modern fashion innovation. The number of buttons is primarily a function of the formality of the suit; a very casual summer sports jacket might traditionally s have had only one button, while tweed suits typically have three and city suits four.
In the s, two buttons were seen on some city suits. Although the sleeve buttons usually cannot be undone, the stitching is such that it appears they could. Functional cuff buttons may be found on high-end or bespoke suits; this feature is called a surgeon's cuff and "working button holes" U. Certainty in fitting sleeve length must be achieved, as once working button holes are cut, the sleeve length essentially cannot be altered further.
A cuffed sleeve has an extra length of fabric folded back over the arm, or just some piping or stitching above the buttons to allude to the edge of a cuff. This was popular in the Edwardian era, as a feature of formalwear such as frock coats carried over to informalwear, but is now rare. A vent is a slit in the bottom rear the "tail" of the jacket. Originally, vents were a sporting option, designed to make riding easier, so are traditional on hacking jackets, formal coats such as a morning coat , and, for practicality, overcoats.
Today there are three styles of venting: Vents are convenient, particularly when using a pocket or sitting down, to improve the hang of the jacket,  so are now used on most jackets.
Ventless jackets are associated with Italian tailoring, while the double-vented style is typically British. Waistcoats called vests in American English were almost always worn with suits prior to the s. Due to rationing during World War II , their prevalence declined, but their popularity has gone in and out of fashion from the s onwards.
A pocket watch on a chain, one end of which is inserted through a middle buttonhole, is often worn with a waistcoat; otherwise, since World War I when they came to prominence of military necessity, men have worn wristwatches, which may be worn with any suit except the full evening dress white tie. Although many examples of waistcoats worn with a double-breasted jacket can be found from the s to the s, that would be unusual today one point of a double-breasted jacket being, it may be supposed, to eliminate the waistcoat.
Traditionally, the bottom button of a waistcoat is left undone; like the vents in the rear of a jacket, this helps the body bend when sitting. Some waistcoats can have lapels, others do not. Suit trousers are always made of the same material as the jacket.
Even from the s to s, before the invention of sports jackets specifically to be worn with odd trousers, wearing a suit jacket with odd trousers was seen as an alternative to a full suit. Trouser width has varied considerably throughout the decades. After , trousers began to be tapered in at the bottom half of the leg.
Trousers remained wide at the top of the leg throughout the s. By the s and s, a more slim look had become popular. In the s, suit makers offered a variety of styles of trousers, including flared, bell bottomed, wide-legged, and more traditional tapered trousers. In the s these styles disappeared in favour of tapered, slim-legged trousers.
One variation in the design of trousers is the use or not of pleats. The most classic style of trouser is to have two pleats, usually forward, since this gives more comfort sitting and better hang standing.
The style originally descended from the exaggeratedly widened Oxford bags worn in the s in Oxford, which, though themselves short-lived, began a trend for fuller fronts.
However, at various periods throughout the last century, flat fronted trousers with no pleats have been worn, and the swing in fashions has been marked enough that the more fashion-oriented ready-to-wear brands have not produced both types continuously.
Turn-ups on the bottom of trousers, or cuffs, were initially popularised in the s by Edward VII ,  and were popular with suits throughout the s and s.
They have always been an informal option, being inappropriate on all formalwear. Other variations in trouser style include the rise of the trouser. This was very high in the early half of the 20th century, particularly with formalwear, with rises above the natural waist,  to allow the waistcoat covering the waistband to come down just below the narrowest point of the chest.
Though serving less purpose, this high height was duplicated in the daywear of the period. Since then, fashions have changed, and have rarely been that high again with styles returning more to low-rise trousers, even dropping down to have waistbands resting on the hips.
Other changing aspects of the cut include the length, which determines the break, the bunching of fabric just above the shoe when the front seam is marginally longer than height to the shoe's top. Some parts of the world, such as Europe, traditionally opt for shorter trousers with little or no break, while Americans often choose to wear a slight break. A final major distinction is made in whether the trousers take a belt or braces suspenders. While a belt was originally never worn with a suit, the forced wearing of belts during wartime years caused by restrictions on use of elastic caused by wartime shortages contributed to their rise in popularity, with braces now much less popular than belts.
When braces were common, the buttons for attaching them were placed on the outside of the waistband, because they would be covered by a waistcoat or cardigan, but now it is more frequent to button on the inside of the trouser. Trousers taking braces are rather different in cut at the waist, employing inches of extra girth and also height at the back.
The split in the waistband at the back is in the fishtail shape. Those who prefer braces assert that, because they hang from the shoulders, they always make the trousers fit and hang exactly as they should, while a belt may allow the trouser waist to slip down on the hips or below a protruding midsection, and requires constant repositioning; also, they allow, indeed work best with, a slightly looser waist which gives room for natural expansion when seated.
Suit trousers, also known as dress pants in the US, are a style of trousers intended as formal or semi-formal wear. They are often made of either wool or polyester  although many other synthetic and natural textiles are used and may be designed to be worn with a matching suit jacket.
Suit trousers often have a crease in the front of each pant leg, and may have one or more pleats. Suit trousers can be worn at many formal and semi-formal occasions combined with a shirt that has no tie and a more relaxed fashion, which can be considered smart casual dress. As an alternative to trousers, breeches or knickers in variations of English where this does not refer to underwear may be worn with informal suits, such as tweed. These are shorter, descending to just below the knees, fastened closely at the top of the calf by a tab or button cuff.
While once common, they are now typically only worn when engaged in traditional outdoor sports, such as shooting or golf.
The length and design is closely related to the plus-fours and plus-sixes etc. They are usually designed to be worn with long socks meeting just below the knee, but riding breeches, worn with long boots such as top boots , are long enough to meet the boot and display no sock.
Accessories for suits include neckties , shoes , wristwatches and pocket watches , pocket squares , cufflinks , tie clips , tie tacks, tie bars, bow ties , lapel pins , and hats. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Italy has been a leader in the design of men's suits.
Typical fabrics include lightweight flannel, a wool and mohair blend, and linen or chino cloth for hot weather. Elsewhere in the Mediterranean , suits are considered impractical without constant air conditioning. As a result, most non-conservative businesses, regardless of size or wealth, tend to use casual clothes even in formal meetings. Similarly, some Israeli branches of American firms tend to imitate their American counterparts' style of clothing.
In 20th century China, the Communist regime encouraged citizens to wear the Mao suit due to its egalitarian and utilitarian design. Although less common now than it once was, the Mao suit is still in widespread use in rural areas. After independence of India , there was a backlash against Western fashions due to their association with the previous colonialist regime.
Instead, professional Indian men began wearing the five button Nehru suit , made from khadi to support the local textile industry. In the tropical Philippines, a former colony of the United States of America, a suit is called terno and jacket that comes with it, is called amerikana.
Because of the hot tropical climate, this formal wear is worn only when necessary, including formal, social or business events. Filipinos rarely wear a suit, and the youth would probably wear one only to a high school or college prom , in which case it might be rented.
At any occasion where a suit is worn, it would also be acceptable to wear a long-sleeved or a short-sleeved barong tagalog , the national dress of the Philippines.
Because wearing a suit conveys a respectable image, many people wear suits during the job interview process. Interview suits are frequently composed of wool or wool-blend fabric, with a solid or pin stripe pattern. In modern society, men's suits have become less common as an outfit of daily wear. During the s, driven in part by the meteoric rise of newly successful technology companies with different cultural attitudes, the prevailing management philosophy of the time moved in favour of more casual attire for employees; the aim was to encourage a sense of openness and egalitarianism.
Traditional business dress as an everyday style is generally limited to middle- and upper-level corporate management now sometimes collectively referred to as "suits" ,  and to the professions particularly law. Casual dress has also become common in Western academic institutions, with traditional business attire falling in popularity. For many men who do not wear suits for work, particularly in Western society, wearing a suit is reserved for special occasions, such as weddings, funerals, court appearances, and other more formal social events.
Hence, because they are not a daily outfit for most men, they are often viewed as being "stuffy" and uncomfortable. The combination of a tie, belt and vest can be tight and restrictive compared to contemporary casual wear, especially when these are purchased at minimal cost and quality for rare occasions, rather than being made to be worn comfortably.
This tendency became prevalent enough that the Christian Science Monitor reported that a suit combined with a necktie and slacks was "a design that guarantees that its wearer will be uncomfortable. This was seen as a liberation from the conformity of earlier periods and occurred concurrently with the women's liberation movement.
Also remarkable is that the suit now frequently appears in Rock, Heavy Metal and Gothic happenings, even though such groups were once known for a rather rebellious tradition of clothing. Artists and bands such as Nick Cave , Marilyn Manson , Blutengel and Akercocke are known for the use of formal clothing in music videos and stage performances.
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